专利翻译时需要避免哪些问题的发生?

2018-11-16

  专利翻译属于文档翻译的一种,看似简单,实则很多人会在翻译过程中会出现很多的问题,因此翻译公司每每在翻译专利翻译的时候都会格外的注意,避免以下问题的发生:


  Patent translation is a kind of document translation. It seems simple. In fact, many people will have many problems in the process of translation. Therefore, translation companies will make special editions whenever they translate patents to avoid the following problems:


  专利翻译中存在的问题各式各样,常见的分为以下几类:


  There are various problems in patent translation, which are often divided into the following categories:


  1.不熟悉专利法及相关法规,随意翻译导致译文不符合某些硬性规定。


  1. unfamiliar with the patent law and related regulations, arbitrary translation leads to the translation does not meet certain mandatory requirements.


  例如,有些译员将发明名称中的“gambling game/casino”轻率地翻译为“赌博/赌场”,而根据我国《专利审查指南》第二部分第一章第3.1.1节的规定,“发明创造与法律相违背的,不能被授予专利权。例如,用于赌博的设备……”资深译员在熟悉相关法规的基础上,对此类措辞非常敏感,在仔细研究上下文后,发现该申请描述的只是游乐场中的投币游戏机,因此通过稍微的术语调整即可避免该专利申请在审查过程中被直接驳回的风险。


  For example, some translators have carelessly translated "gambling game/casino" in the name of invention into "gambling game/casino". According to the provisions of section 3.1.1 of Chapter 1 of Part II of the Patent Examination Guide of our country, "inventions and creations that are contrary to the law can not be granted patent rights. For example, equipment used for gambling... " Senior translators are very sensitive to such wording on the basis of their familiarity with relevant regulations. After careful study of the context, they find that the application only describes coin-operated games in amusement parks. Therefore, a slight terminological adjustment can avoid the risk that the patent application will be rejected directly in the course of examination.


  2.对原文的增译、漏译或误译,导致将原始保护范围扩大或缩小。


  2. the addition, misinterpretation or mistranslation of the original text results in the enlargement or reduction of the original protection scope.


  例如,在专利文献中“milk”往往被译为“牛奶”。而资深译员会根据具体语境斟酌术语适用的恰当范围,因此在涉及奶制品的申请文件中,“奶”往往替代于“牛奶”使用,以免排除了除牛奶之外的其他奶类从而缩小保护范围。


  For example, in the patent literature, "milk" is often translated as "milk". Senior translators will consider the appropriate scope of terminology according to the specific context. Therefore, in the application documents concerning dairy products, "milk" is often used instead of "milk" in order to avoid excluding other dairy products and thus reduce the scope of protection.


  3.对于术语的统一和区分不够准确,导致译文指代不清,最终导致技术方案无效。


  3. The inaccuracy of the unification and distinction of terms leads to the unclear reference of the translated text and the invalidity of the technical scheme.


  例如,“das Motormoment des Verbrennungsmotorsund das Motormoment des ElektromotorsNull eingestelltwerden”(德语)根据字面意义被译为“将该内燃发动机的发动机力矩和该电动机的发动机力矩设定为大于零”。但按照严格的质量标准,翻译并不是对单个单词的译文的机械罗列,而必须考虑整句的准确及合理性。在此句子中,“Motormoment”被译为“发动机力矩”会让中文表达“电动机的发动机力矩”产生矛盾,换成“机动力矩”将会更合适。


  For example, "das Motormoment des Verbrennungsmotorsund Das Motormoment des Elektromotors Null eingestelltwerden" (German) is literally translated as "setting the engine torque of the internal combustion engine and that of the motor to be greater than zero". However, according to strict quality standards, translation is not a mechanical listing of the translation of a single word, but must consider the accuracy and rationality of the whole sentence. In this sentence, the translation of "Motormoment" into "engine moment" will make the Chinese expression of "motor moment" contradictory. It will be more appropriate to replace "motor moment" with "motor moment".


  4.对原文的理解不到位,导致译文与原文含义相去甚远,最终导致技术方案无效。


  4. The inadequate understanding of the original text leads to a far cry between the meaning of the translated text and that of the original text, which ultimately leads to the ineffectiveness of the technical scheme.


  例如,原文中表达“将这些设备分组,对组提供单个的标识符”被译为“dividing the devices into a group, the group being provided with a single identifier”。分析原句,原译文可能是因为中文“单个”的使用而判定“组”为一个。但在严格的翻译规范中,翻译必须是结合附图、结合上下文进行综合的理解和确定后再进行的工作。在此例中,依据中文的表达习惯,一般会是将很多东西分成“多个组”,且从附图中来看的确是被分成了n个组,而中文“单个”除了表达“仅一个”之外,也能表达“一个一个的”的意思,正确译文应是“dividing the devices into groups, the groups being provided with individual identifiers”。


  For example, the original expression "grouping these devices, providing a single identifier for the group" was translated as "dividing the devices into a group, the group being provided with a single identifier". Analyzing the original sentence, the original translation may be due to the use of "single" in Chinese and to determine "group" as one. However, in strict translation norms, translation must be carried out after comprehensive understanding and determination combined with drawings and context. In this case, according to the Chinese expression habit, many things are generally divided into "multiple groups", and in the attached drawings, they are indeed divided into n groups. In addition to the expression of "only one", Chinese "single" can also express the meaning of "one by one". The correct translation should be "dividing the devices into gr". Oups, the groups being provided with individual identifiers ".