影响翻译质量的文本因素

2018-08-07

      影响翻译质量的最重要的因素是文本因素,具体的原因分为四点,下面翻译公司为大家详细介绍:

      The most important factor affecting the quality of translation is the text factor. The specific reasons can be divided into four points.

      1、语义理解障碍:

      1, semantic understanding obstacle:

      阅读和分析原文阶段,原文的语义含糊性和句法复杂性是影响等值程度最主要的因素。由于原文有意无意的语义含糊,译者很难确定原文的真实语义,不同的人有不同的理解,也就产生不同的译文。如,以汉语为母语的人常喜欢间接地或迂回地表达自己对一个男孩或女孩长相的看法,便说“她长得困难”——这就不能不给译者带来“别扭”的感觉。如果直译为“She grows difficult.”老外读了可能费解;如果意译为“She looks ugly.”原文的风趣就丧失了。

       In reading and analyzing the original stage, the semantic ambiguity and syntactic complexity of the original text are the most important factors affecting the equivalence level. Due to the intentional or unintentional ambiguity of the original, it is difficult for the translator to determine the true meaning of the original. Different people have different understandings, and different translations will be produced. For example, Chinese native speakers often like to express their views on a boy or girl's appearance indirectly and indirectly, and say "she is difficult" - this can not give the translator a "awkward" feeling. If literally translated as "She grows difficult." foreigners may be confused to read; if paraphrased as "She looks ugly." the original wit is lost.  

       要克服语义含糊,准确传达原文语义就要求译者对原语有较高的把握能力,尽可能综合考虑与原文语义相关的所有因素,挖掘出原文真实内涵。即便如此也难实现绝对的“等值”。

       To overcome the ambiguity and convey the semantic meaning of the original, it requires the translator to have a good grasp of the original language, and consider all the factors related to the original text as much as possible to excavate the true meaning of the original text. Even so it is difficult to achieve the absolute "equal value".

       原文句法过于复杂也是译者遇到的比较棘手的问题,翻译前译者不得不将复杂的句法重新梳理一遍,即先进行语内翻译,然后再转换成译语,这也在一定程度上影响了等值程度。

       The complexity of the original text is also a difficult problem for the translator. Before translation, the translator has to RECOMB the complex syntax, that is, to translate into the language first and then convert it into the target language, which also affects the degree of equivalence to a certain extent.

       2、表达方式相异:

       2, the way of expression is different:

       分析完原文后,在原文转换成译文阶段,译者同样遇到很多影响等值的因素,大都与表达方式、文体风格有关。原文里同一个句法单位,译文通常都有几种等值程度不一的表达方式与之对应(固定用法除外),表达方式的取舍在一定程度上决定了译文等值程度的高低。

       After the analysis of the source text, the translator also encounters many factors affecting the equivalence, mostly related to the way of expression and style. In the same syntactic unit in the original text, the translation usually corresponds to the expression of several different degrees of equivalence (except for fixed usage), and the choice of the way of expression determines the level of the equivalent of the translation to a certain extent.

       我们的取舍原则是选择最自然的对等物,即采用最符合译语表达习惯及惯用语搭配的表达方式。

       Our principle of choice is to choose the most natural equivalents, that is, to adopt expressions that are most consistent with the conventions of the target language and collocations of idioms.

       3、语法结构不同:

       3. The grammatical structure is different:

       不同语言有不同的语法范畴、语法规则和语法结构,这些不同导致它们传达信息的方式也不同。译文语言若缺失原文语言的某种语法范畴或结构,则在译文中很难找到一个与原文直接对应的对等物,译者也不得不对原文的信息或增或删、做出某些取舍。在这些影响翻译的语法范畴中,尤其强调数、性、时态和语体、语态、人称。

       Different languages have different grammatical categories, grammatical rules and grammatical structures, which lead to different ways of conveying information. If the target language lacks a grammatical category or structure in the original language, it is difficult to find a counterpart in the target text which is directly corresponding to the original text. In these grammatical categories that affect translation, particular emphasis is placed on number, sex, tense and style, voice and person.

        因此,不同语言之间的语法差异也是影响等值程度的一个重要因素。语法差异越大,达到等值的难度也就越大。如,汉语中的“独词句”或没有主语的句子很多。在将其译成英文时就要补充上语法或逻辑上的语,这就不能实现“等值”的翻译。“蛇!”作为一个表示惊讶的句子,要用三个以上的英文字,才能将其译出。[It’s a snake! ] “C1=E3”如何等值?

       Therefore, the grammatical difference between different languages is also an important factor affecting the degree of equivalence. The greater the difference in grammar, the more difficult it is to achieve equivalence. For example, there are many "single words" in Chinese or sentences without subjects. When translating it into English, it is necessary to add grammatical or logical terms, so that the translation of "equivalence" can not be realized. Snake, as a surprise sentence, needs more than three English words to translate it. How do [It 's a snake!] "C1=E3" be equal?

        4、文章体裁:

        4. The genre of the article:

       文章体裁是影响翻译等值程度一个很重要的因素。不同体裁具有不同的功能,是表情功能、信息功能抑或呼语功能,这在翻译中都不能忽视。奈达在论述“动态对等”时提出的四条原则之一便是译文与原文的文学体裁所起的作用一致。

       Article genre is a very important factor affecting the degree of translation equivalence. Different genres have different functions, such as expressive function, information function or vocative function, which can not be ignored in translation. One of Nida's four principles in his discussion of "dynamic equivalence" is that the translation plays the same role as the literary genre of the original text.

       例如,原文体裁若具有认识职能,译文也须具有这种职能,原文的语言职能是美学职能,译文也须实现美学职能。诗歌被普遍认为是最难达到等值甚至是一种不可译的文学体裁,不仅因为它在文字、音韵、隐喻等方面的特性,更因为蕴含其中的神韵、意境或者说是味道,即诗之所以为诗的东西都使常人无法企及。

       For example, if the original genre has the cognitive function, the translation must also have this function. The linguistic function of the original is the aesthetic function, and the translation must also realize the aesthetic function. Poetry is generally considered to be the most difficult and even an untranslatable literary genre, not only because of its characteristics in words, phonology and metaphor, but also because of its charm, artistic conception, or taste.

       不同的文章体裁应有不同的等值标准,甚至是每篇文章都应有其自身的等值标准。

       Different articles should have different standards of equivalence, and even every article should have its own equivalent standard.

       以上四点都是会影响到翻译质量的文本因素,所以我们在进行翻译的时候一定要注意以上的内容,希望翻译公司以上的总结对大家有所帮助。

       The above four points are the text factors that will affect the quality of translation, so we must pay attention to the above content when we do the translation. I hope that the above summary will help us.